MILAN — Preparatory cartoons for Renaissance frescoes — the full-scale drawings that artists used to transfer their designs to the wall — rarely survived the finished commission. Functional and fragile, they weren’t meant for posterity.
But thankfully, Raphael’s cartoon for “The School of Athens,” a famous fresco in the Vatican, survived.
Commissioned in 1508, the fresco is part of the decoration of a suite of four rooms in the Pontifical Palace — now known as Raphael’s Rooms — that Pope Julius II used as his residence. Along with the Sistine Chapel, these rooms are among the Vatican’s biggest draws.
This week the cartoon for the “School of Athens” has gone on public view again after a four-year restoration by the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, an art gallery in Milan that has had the cartoon in its collection for some 400 years.
The boldly colored fresco was painted by Raphael and his assistants, and is set just above eye level. The cartoon, however, was drawn by Raphael alone, and the new layout of the room that houses it — now placed inside a state-of-the-art vitrine with nonreflective glass — lets visitors get up close, enough to detect individual charcoal strokes and shading.
Measuring 26 feet by nine feet, it is an outsized testimony to Raphael’s talents.
“There are details in the cartoon, sketched in charcoal, that are remarkable for their originality,” Antonella Ranaldi, Milan’s principal official in charge of art and archaeology, said at a news conference on Monday. “It is a precious testimony,” she said.
Its value must have been evident to Raphael’s contemporaries, and rather than use the cartoon itself for the fresco, a copy was used and the original was preserved. That copy was destroyed through use when the outlines of the figures and details were pricked with pins, and the cartoon was dabbed with a cloth bag containing charcoal powder to transfer the image to the walls
The cartoon has been exhibited — off and on — at the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana since 1610, and its founder, Cardinal Federico Borromeo, bought the drawing for the collection in 1626 for 600 imperial lire, “an exorbitant price at the time,” the director of the Pinacoteca, the Rev. Alberto Rocca, said Monday. “It shows how much he wanted it,” he said.
One significant restoration of the cartoon was carried out in 1797-78 at the Louvre in Paris, where it ended up — along with other works — after Napoleon’s troops swept through northern Italy in 1796.
Since 1966 it has been on display in its own room at the Pinacoteca, but it was set back behind a guardrail. In the new arrangement, visitors can walk directly up to vitrine, made by the Italian display case experts Goppion, who claim it is the largest single-door vitrine in the world.
Five years ago, the cartoon came under the scrutiny of a fresh crop of scholars and restorers, who were concerned about its state of conservation. Funded through a private donation, the restoration took four years because of its complex nature, and required various stages of intervention, said the chief restorer, Maurizio Michelozzi. It might have taken time, but it served to provide “a better understanding of the masterpiece,” Mr. Michelozzi said.
Because the cartoon was drafted before Raphael began painting the rooms, several figures from the finished fresco in the Vatican are conspicuously absent, including one seated at the base of the steps, leaning against a block of marble. This has traditionally been identified as a portrait of Michelangelo, who was painting the ceiling of the nearby Sistine Chapel while Raphael worked at “The School of Athens” in the papal apartments. Also missing is the figure wearing a black beret on the far right, thought to be a self-portrait of Raphael.
Monsignor Rocca said that Cardinal Borromeo, the Pinacoteca’s founder, accused the people of Milan of “spending all their money on dogs and horses: motorcycles and Ferraris in today’s world.” But the restoration — financed by Ramo, the company of Giuseppe Rabolini, an art collector and entrepreneur who died in August 2018 — disproves that criticism, he said.
The cartoon has been “fundamental in our history and we are enthusiastic about the results,” he said. Its restoration, he added, “is the fruit of an act of love for art.”B:
2016高清跑狗图110期“【嗯】？”【安】【歌】【顺】【势】【停】【到】【了】**【树】【前】【面】。“【怎】【么】【了】？”【她】【看】【到】**【树】【有】【些】【紧】【张】，【便】【又】【笑】【嘻】【嘻】【的】【看】【着】【她】。 “【安】【歌】，”**【树】【看】【着】【安】【歌】【的】【眼】【神】【十】【分】【的】【认】【真】。 “【咱】【们】【结】【婚】【吧】。” “？？！！”【安】【歌】【吃】【惊】【地】【看】【着】**【树】，【张】【大】【嘴】【巴】。 “【对】，”**【树】【一】【把】【搂】【住】【了】【安】【歌】【的】【肩】【膀】，【把】【她】【向】【前】【带】【着】【走】。“【就】【是】【结】【婚】【你】【没】【听】
“【懂】【了】【吧】，【并】【不】【是】【针】【对】【你】【们】【人】【类】。【不】【要】【在】【这】【太】【瞧】【得】【起】【自】【己】【了】。【我】【们】【只】【是】【对】【弱】【者】【一】【视】【同】【仁】，【弱】【者】【都】【只】【需】【要】【在】【牢】【笼】【里】【好】【好】【被】【人】【支】【配】【就】【行】【了】。”【大】【少】【爷】【模】【样】【的】【兽】【人】【说】【完】，【顾】【北】【朝】【一】【旁】【的】【牢】【笼】【看】【去】。 【这】【些】【牢】【笼】【的】【确】【有】【一】【个】【个】【可】【怜】【受】【惊】【的】【人】【类】。 【而】【且】【在】【他】【们】【所】【谓】【的】【字】【眼】【中】【的】“【弱】【者】”，【居】【然】【指】【的】【是】【剑】【皇】、【魔】【皇】。 【因】【为】【顾】
【次】【日】【清】【晨】，【凯】【拉】【尔】【的】【住】【所】【迎】【来】【了】【两】【位】【特】【殊】【的】【客】【人】。 “【御】【主】，【我】【已】【经】【感】【知】【到】【了】【里】【面】【有】【从】【者】【的】【存】【在】，【你】【确】【定】【还】【要】【进】【去】【吗】？”【灵】【体】【化】【的】【红】A【跟】【在】【远】【坂】【凛】【的】【身】【后】，【看】【着】【眼】【前】【的】【公】【寓】，【问】【道】。 【昨】【晚】【在】【摆】【脱】【了】Lancer【的】【追】【击】【之】【后】，【经】【过】【一】【晚】【上】【的】【休】【息】，【远】【坂】【凛】【恢】【复】【了】【全】【部】【的】【魔】【力】【和】【自】【己】【的】【伤】【势】，【于】【是】【立】【马】【带】【着】【自】【家】【从】【者】
【郑】【长】【生】【听】【到】【锦】【衣】【卫】【密】【报】，【差】【点】【把】【手】【里】【的】【茶】【盏】【给】【摔】【了】。 【我】【去】，【这】【个】【死】【丫】【头】，【怎】【么】【偏】【赶】【这】【个】【时】【候】【去】【弥】【陀】【寺】。 【这】【不】【是】【添】【乱】【吗】？ 【现】【在】【弥】【勒】【教】【做】【祸】【在】【即】，【胡】【金】【鹏】【狗】【日】【的】【对】【婉】【儿】【虎】【视】【眈】【眈】，【还】【有】【晚】【上】【的】【巨】【大】【灯】【会】【要】【维】【持】【秩】【序】。 【几】【十】【万】【的】【民】【众】【聚】【集】【在】【街】【头】，【等】【着】【瞻】【仰】【皇】【后】【娘】【娘】【亲】【手】【为】【皇】【上】【制】【作】【的】【花】【灯】。 【这】【要】【是】【出】【了】
【不】【知】【为】【何】【好】【多】【章】【节】【被】【屏】【蔽】【了】。 【不】【过】【也】【无】【所】【谓】【了】，【文】【笔】【稚】【嫩】【已】【经】【不】【能】【继】【续】。 【自】【己】【总】【结】【通】【篇】【文】【章】【太】【一】【般】【了】，【缺】【乏】【跌】【宕】【起】【伏】【引】【人】【入】【胜】【的】【故】【事】【内】【容】，【也】【缺】【乏】【对】【人】【物】【的】【鲜】【明】【刻】【画】。 【所】【以】，【就】【这】【样】【到】【这】【吧】。 【不】【过】【收】【获】【在】【于】，【这】【是】【自】【己】【第】【一】【次】【写】【了】【这】【么】【多】【字】【的】【文】【章】，【超】【过】20【万】【字】，【也】【算】【是】【有】【所】【感】【悟】。 【故】【事】【未】【完】【待】
【易】【昕】【说】【自】【己】【害】【怕】【失】【去】，【这】【个】【话】【题】，【谢】【少】【琛】【觉】【得】【他】【不】【适】【合】【接】。 【毕】【竟】，【他】【自】【己】【就】【是】【一】【个】【剥】【夺】【者】。 【曾】【经】【有】【那】【么】【多】【女】【孩】，【就】【因】【为】【认】【识】【了】【他】，【从】【此】【被】【他】【推】【向】【了】【一】【条】【不】【归】【路】。 【他】【堂】【而】【皇】【之】【的】【剥】【夺】【着】【她】【们】【的】【一】【切】，【天】【真】、【清】【白】、【名】【誉】、【梦】【想】、【青】【春】……【一】【个】【女】【孩】【子】【最】【可】【宝】【贵】【的】【一】【切】，【都】【被】【他】【作】【为】【交】【换】【利】【益】【的】【筹】【码】，【轻】【易】【投】【进】